Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Overview of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

Generally, diabetes patients suffering from a complete lack of insulin are known as Type 1 diabetes and another one is when the patient have an insufficient amount of insulin or can’t utilize the insulin properly are known as Type 2 diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes was formerly known as insulin-dependent diabetes, it is an autoimmune state where the body’s immune system cannot identify the pancreatic cells and though attacks it. As the pancreatic cells produce insulin so this attack lead towards very little or no production of insulin.

Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes was formerly known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes. In this condition, the body couldn’t utilize the insulin effectively. This Type 2 diabetes is usually common among children with overweight, it happens when the insulin produced by the body couldn’t fulfill the required quantity, and the body cells don’t respond properly to the insulin, this syndrome is often known as the insulin resistance.


Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that happens when the immune system of the body attacks the beta cells of the pancreas. As the beta cells of the pancreas produce insulin, so destroying these cells results in slowly reducing the ability of the body to produce sufficient amount of insulin that regulates the blood glucose levels. Though the exact reason behind this disease is unknown but it is being believed that a person born with a certain combination of genes and the environment around made the genes become active is the cause of Type 1 Diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes is a multifactorial disease that inherits from genes but it get active with obesity and other dietary issues, in this condition the body does not produce sufficient amount of insulin, and the cells of the body resist themselves from the effect of insulin, from this glucose build-up in the blood cells and the cells remain starved for energy. Type 2 diabetes is caused by high glucose levels in blood and also because of obesity, lifestyle disorder, and dietary issues. While consumption of more sugar in diet lead towards excess demands of insulin production and eventually that tends towards insulin resistance over time. The receptor cells that become less resistant to insulin couldn’t remove the glucose from the blood and that lead towards high blood glucose and more demand for insulin production.


The major symptoms of Type 1 diabetes start appearing when the blood sugar gets higher. The symptoms of Type 1 diabetes are like unusual thirst, frequent piddling, fatigue, rapidly losing weight, the feeling of numbness in the feet, hunger, and blurred vision. Having higher levels of blood sugar can cause rapid breathing or some breathing problem, nausea, having a fruity breath, and dry skin.

On the other side, the major symptoms of type 2 diabetes just don’t show for many years and keep ravaging the patient’s body without their concern. Some of the early symptoms of Type 2 diabetes are like getting frequent infections, fatigue, frequent piddling, unusual thirst, hunger, and blurred vision; sometimes it may include erectile dysfunction in men, and numbness in the hands and the feet. Some other consequences of higher blood pressure are kidney failure, blindness, cardiovascular issues and neurological diseases.

Both in type 1 and type 2 diabetes some of the symptoms are similar to feeling thirsty, frequently piddling, fatigue, rapidly losing body weight, uncontrollable urge to eat, weakness, and irritability.



Type 1 Diabetes

The Type 1 diabetes, commonly known as juvenile diabetes, usually develops in young people and adults. In this type of diabetes, the body cannot produce insulin or more appropriately sufficient amount of insulin because the immune system of the body that protects us from several infections by getting rid of germs, viruses, bacteria, and some other harmful substances get attacked, and the cells that produce insulin are being destroyed.

The treatments for type 1 diabetes are:

  • Taking injections, of insulin.
  • Taking oral medicines.
  • Adopting a healthy diet.
  • Being physically fit and active.
  • Controlling blood pressure levels.
  • Controlling cholesterol levels.

Type 2 Diabetes

The Type 2 diabetes, formerly known as the adult-onset diabetes, usually it affects people of all age groups and even children’s also. Generally, Type 2 diabetes results from overweight and inactiveness. This type of diabetes begins with insulin resistance; it is a condition that happens when the fat, muscle, and the liver cells cannot utilize the insulin to carry glucose into the cells of the body that is being used to get energy. And so the body requires more insulin to help glucose enter into the cells. In the initial stages, the pancreas keeps on adding the demand by producing more insulin. But over time, the pancreas stops responding to the demand for more insulin, and it makes an increase in the blood sugar level.

The treatments for type 2 diabetes are:

  • Regular intake of diabetes medicines
  • Adapting healthy diet choices
  • Staying physically fit and active
  • Controlling blood pressure levels and checking it on a regular basis.
  • Controlling and regularly checking up the cholesterol levels.diabetes-treatment


Bitter Gourd

Bitter gourd, widely known as bitter melon, is quite useful for controlling diabetes because of its blood glucose lowering effects. It helps to increase pancreatic insulin secretion and also prevents insulin resistance. It is beneficial for both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes as well, but in cannot be used instead of a complete insulin treatment.


As powdered cinnamon contains bioactive components in it so it can help to prevent and fight diabetes by lowering the blood sugar levels by stimulating insulin activity. Some studies show that Cinnamon can work effectively in lowering blood sugar levels in cases of Type-2 diabetes.


Fenugreek is a common herb that is being used for ages to control the blood sugar levels. It has some medicinal values and apart from that the hypoglycemic activity helps to improve the glucose tolerance level and lowers blood sugar levels. It also controls the secretion of glucose-dependent insulin. As it is rich in fiber, so it slows down the absorption of carbohydrates and sugars.


Indian Gooseberry

Indian gooseberry, a wonder herb it is rich in nutrients, iron, calcium and vitamin C. It also helps to lower the blood sugar levels with its daily use.

Indian BlackBerry

Indian BlackBerry or it is also known as Black plum helps to control the blood sugar level as it contains ellagic acid, anthocyanins, and hydrolysable tannins. The seeds of black palm contain alkaloid jumbo line and glycoside jambosine that helps to control the blood sugar levels.


There are three types of Diabetes:

  • The Type 1 Diabetes
  • The Type 2 Diabetes
  • And the Gestational Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes

The Type 1 diabetes happens when the immune system attacks and destroys the beta cells present in the pancreas and eventually results in a very little amount of insulin secretion. For this reason, sugar starts to build up in the blood instead of being used in the form of energy. This kind of Diabetes is very rare only 5- 10% of people have Type 1 Diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes

The Type 2 diabetes happens when the body couldn’t properly utilize the insulin that is released or could not produce enough insulin. It results in, sugar build up in the blood instead of being used in the form of energy. Type 2 diabetes is quite common among people with diabetes; about 90 % of people with diabetes suffer from type 2 diabetes.

Gestational diabetes

The third type of diabetes is known as gestational diabetes this temporary condition happens during pregnancy. Approximately 2 to 4% of ladies get affected by this during their pregnancies resulting from an increased risk of diabetes for both mother and fetus.


Generally, blood tests are done in the initial stages after getting some symptoms to confirm the diagnosis of both Type 1 and 2 diabetes. Testing let the doctor know and treat diabetes before any other complications arise, and can prevent type 2 diabetes from developing.

The following tests are done for diagnosis of type 1 or type 2 diabetes:

  • A1C
  • Fasting plasma glucose (FPG)
  • Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).

Another blood test which is rarely done to diagnose diabetes during regular health checkup is the random plasma glucose or the (RPG) test. The doctor diagnoses diabetes when the Random plasma glucose or the (RPG) measures 200 micrograms per deciliter or more than that.



Medications for type 1 diabetes

In type 1 diabetes the body cannot produce insulin of its own. So the patient is treated to replace the insulin that the body cannot produce.


Insulin is mostly used for the treatment for both type 1 and type 1 diabetes it is one of the common types of medication used for diabetes treatment. The dosage is given by injections and is available in many types and forms. The forms of insulin are as follows:

  1. Short-acting insulin
  2. Rapid-acting insulins
  3. Intermediate-acting insulin
  4. Long-acting insulins
  5. Combination insulins


Amylinomimetic drug

Pramlintide is an amylinomimetic drug that is usually injected before meals. It helps to delay the time human stomach takes to empty it. And also prevents glucagon secretion after meals.

Medications for type 2 diabetes

If someone has the type 2 diabetes, and the body could not produce enough insulin, then the patient is treated to substitute the insulin. The forms of medicine that are used to prevent or lower diabetes level are as follows:

  1. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
  2. Biguanides
  3. Dopamine agonist
  4. DPP-4 inhibitors
  5. Glucagon-like peptides
  6. Sodium-glucose transporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitors
  7. Sulfonylureas
  8. Thiazolidinediones

Other drugs

People with type 1 and type 2 diabetes often need to take other medications to prevent the issues that are common with diabetes. These medicines include:

  • Aspirin for cardiac issues
  • Medicines to control high cholesterol
  • Medicines to treat high blood pressure

Consult your Health Expert

There are several medicines available in the market for the treatment of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. But one need to consult with a health expert to know which diabetes medicines are best suited in accordance to the symptoms. The doctor will recommend medicines and tests according to the type of diabetes, health issues, and other factors the patient have.


There are no such preventive measures for type 1 diabetes. Some of the possibilities are using the stem cells and pancreas transplant. Whereas for type 2 diabetes preventive measures like losing weight and daily exercising can act as a cure.

Diabetic patient doing glucose level blood test using ultra mini glucometer and a small drop of blood from finger and test strips isolated on a white background. Device shows 115 mg/dL which is normal


So Type 1 diabetes is insulin-dependent diabetes, and the Type 2 diabetes is the noninsulin dependent diabetes. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the beta cells attack the pancreas, and the Type 2 diabetes is genetically inherited. The symptoms of both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes is almost same like unusual thirst, frequent piddling, fatigue, rapidly losing weight, the feeling of numbness in the feet, frequent urge to eat, and blurred vision.

The treatment for both types of diabetes is also same the treatment involves taking injections, of insulin, taking oral medicines, adopting a healthy diet, being physically fit and active, controlling blood pressure levels and controlling cholesterol levels. There some home remedies also with its regular intake diabetes can be prevented like fenugreek, bitter gourd, and the Indian gooseberry. One should regularly check their diabetes to control the blood sugar levels along with the intake of medicines suggested by their health expert. For more health tips like this stay connected and stay well!!!

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