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Skin discoloration or uneven skin tone occurs sometimes due to natural and normal reasons whereas sometimes it indicates a severe health concern that needed medical attention. Whether the skin discoloration is normal or because of abnormal reasons with appropriate treatment for the skin discoloration issue, one can relieve this health condition.
The color of our skin is derived from a substance called melanin which forms the color of skin, eye, and hair. So when a difference in the melanin level occurs in many parts of the body that particular area either get darker or lighter than the nearby or overall body skin color.
Higher the level of melanin darker the skin tone likewise lower the level of melanin, lighter the skin tone with the comparison to nearby skin color. Melanin is an important component of skin which also gives protection against sunburn in an unexpected way. Whether there is less, over or no production of melanin it will cause skin discoloration.
Causes of Skin Discoloration
Skin discoloration happens due to several medical reasons and due to some treatment procedure also. After a certain age, the skin gets discolored because of aging effect which is quite natural and there is nothing to worry about it. However, it is better to consult with a doctor to ensure whether the skin discoloration is happening due to normal reasons or it is happening due to some abnormal health condition which requires treatment. Below we have mentioned different conditions which cause skin discoloration.
Melasma is a skin condition in which dark patches appear on the face and sometimes in neck and chest also which is a rare case. This health condition is not harmful and mostly happens in pregnant women and people with dark skin color. It is also known as chloasma.
The increased level of melanin causes these dark brown patches or spots on the face which remains different from the nearby skin color. It affects to the upper layer of skin i.e. epidermis and the middle layer of skin i.e. dermis and sometimes to both the layers. It is also considered as a pregnancy sign other than that it happens due to consumption of contraceptive pills, sun exposure and the hormone replacement therapy.
It doesn’t affect the health of the affected person but makes the skin look dull causing mental cramp. In many cases, melisma gets automatically disappear after a year and in some cases, it stays for the lifelong time. You can get rid of melasma with cosmetic creams containing hydroquinone as an ingredient.
Hemangioma is a benign growth that often occurs since birth in babies. These are non-inflammatory and mostly it disappears at the age of 10 in children. Not all hemangiomas disappear by own and it causes soreness which needed to be relieved through proper medication.
People resemble it as birthmark but it is not so. It mainly happens on the skin and sometimes in the internal organs too such as in liver etc. Its color ranges from red-blue, salmon to port wine. In some cases, it needed to be removed through the surgical process.
Radiation Therapy Application
Some diseases needed radiation therapy to be applied for its treatment which causes discoloration of that particular skin area which has undergone this therapy procedure. Radiation causes hair loss, peeling, rashes and blistering of the affected skin.
The Pityriasis Alba is a red, pink and scaly patch on the skin which mostly occurs in the face. These are found in children and in young adults. These patches are different in shapes such as a circle, oval and irregular. These patches get disappear automatically sometimes in a few months or in few years and sometimes along with adulthood it gets vanished.
Though this gets disappears then also it leaves behind it a discolored skin and light patches. If the Pityriasis Alba flares up in future then it needs proper medical treatment. If dryness or itching occurs then it can be relieved through steroid and non-steroid creams.
The Seborrheic Dermatitis mainly occurs in the scalp and sometimes in other areas of the body. This health condition causes redness, rashes, and itching in scalp. This looks like rashes due to allergic reaction and psoriasis. These rashes are non-contagious. It can be relieved through the application of some shampoos, ointments, creams and antifungal medications.
Albinism is a severe kind of skin discoloration in which the skin color of the affected person gets discolored in the whole body. The skin gets whiter, brown and sometimes reddish. This is a partial or complete loss of pigmentation which happens in the lack of tyrosinase which is an enzyme needed for the production of melanin.
Albinism is a genetic disorder issue which affects all races worldwide. This is a severe kind of skin discoloration which affects the skin, eyes, and hairs too. The affected person may have low vision or sensitivity to light and chances of skin cancer remains high in these people. The worst part of this skin condition is that it is incurable. However, with extra care and regular meeting with the doctor can prevent the chances of any worst health condition like skin cancer and vision loss.
Eczema is another kind of skin discoloration issue which mostly occurs in children which may continue until their adulthood. This health condition causes lighter or darker skin pigmentation than the nearby skin color. This kind of skin discoloration occurs mainly in darker complexion people.
Eczema is also known as atopic dermatitis. This inflammatory disease causes reddish, itchy and dry skin type. Its symptom includes scaly, itchy, dry and thickened skin. It is suspected that it occurs due to allergy or asthma. This cannot be cured completely through treatment however medications like ointments, creams etc. are prescribed by doctors to relieve its symptoms.
Tinea Versicolor is a skin discoloration condition which causes light or darker patches on the skin. It occurs due to an unusual growth of pityrosporum ovale yeast found in the skin. It mainly happens in adolescents or in young adult.
This skin discoloration issue occurs due to hormonal changes, excess sweating, hot weather, oily skin and weakened immune system. These discolored patches or spots on skin can be relieved through medications. The skin may remain discolored even after a few months of the elimination of this allergic reaction.
Birthmarks are most popular and a well-known form of skin discoloration which remains in babies since their birth. These marks can be brown, black and bluish in color. With adolescence, this may fade little bit these marks are lifelong spots. These are harmless.
In some babies, red marks are notices in their birth which is a vascular birthmark. This happens due to abnormal blood vessels existence in the skin. Usually, birthmarks are not a health concern but if it exists near the eye area or any other part of the face causing the cosmetic issue then it can be removed by the treatment process.
Vitiligo is a skin discoloration issue in which the affected skin area turns white and with time it can spread to nearby skin area too. The reason behind this skin discoloration issue is the death of melanocyte cells which produces melanin, the substance responsible for skin pigmentation.
This kind of skin discoloration may occur at any age. In the initial stage these white patches are of the very small size and with time the size gets bigger. These spots are harmless and non-contagious but it causes emotional cramp in the affected person due to its cosmetic concern. Its color can fade through proper medication and UVA & UVB phototherapy.
Lichen Sclerosus is a thin white spot that mainly appears in genitals. These thick patches exist for a long time which mainly occurs in women who have gone through their menopause stage. In some cases, it is found in men and children too.
Its symptoms include white thin spots, cracked and sore patches, thickened and wrinkly skin. It causes pain while intercourse and during urination. Its most suspected reasons are considered the hormonal imbalances and the overactive immune system of the affected person. There is no particular treatment for this skin condition; however, its symptoms can be relieved through the usage of creams and ointments.
Skin areas which get burnt even though heal with time and medication but leave scars behind it. The affected area remains discolored for years sometimes for the lifetime. Likewise, sunburn or suntan can also cause redness and patches on the affected skin.
Autoimmune diseases cause skin discoloration issue such as dark to lighten skin spots, red patches, blisters, rashes etc. Our body has natural immunity power which protects us from the foreign attack like from harmful bacteria and viruses and keeps our body protected.
Sometimes our immunity system confuses our healthy cells with foreign attack and destroys to these cells which result in many health issues. The skin discoloration is one of the side effects of these health issues which are the result of autoimmune diseases.
Allergic reaction such as allergy from plants, foods, and irritants makes the affected skin area discolored. It causes redness, rash and raised bump which often burns and itches.
Treatment of Skin Discoloration
Skin discoloration issue sometimes resolved on its own with time but the stubborn skin spots and patches don’t go by own which can be reduced and removed through proper medical treatment. Your doctor will first try to find out the underlying cause of your skin discoloration problem. Once the underlying issue is detected they will start its counter medication and therapies to relieve its symptom and uneven skin tone. Its treatment option includes the following.
Skin Discoloration Cream
Hyperpigmentation or skin darkening issue can be relieved through some skin lightening creams rich is essential ingredients which boost the growth and stabilization of the melanocytes cell which is responsible for melanin production.
Some counter skin pigmentation creams include Vitamin C, bearberry glycolic acid, ferric acid, kojic acid, and hydroquinone. These skin lightening creams are generally prescribed by the doctors to resolve skin discoloration issue.
Laser therapy treatment is one of the most effective ways to fade and clear the dark spots and patches in the skin. Laser rays are used to treat different kind of discoloration. These are the high-level treatment which is divided into different segments.
This therapy will reduce and fade the skin discoloration in most faster and effective way. However, it is accompanied by some side effects also which you must consult with your doctor before choosing this treatment process. O-switched laser and pulsed light devices are some common forms of laser treatment.
The Photorejuvenation is a kind of cosmetic treatment to remove light spots, freckles, and mild skin pigmentation. It is also known as Intense Pulse Light or IPL in which intense light pulses on spot area which boosts the production of collagen by rejuvenating the skin cells. It helps to heal the affected area; also it promotes the growth of new skin cells to ensure even skin tone.
This is a non-invasive form of skin – discoloration treatment which brings a drastic reduction in the color and size of skin patches.
Chemical peels are also another non-invasive cosmetic treatment for skin discoloration problem. This is a costly treatment but bring positive reduction even in an intense form of skin spots, patches ranging from lighter to dark.
Sun exposure is considered as the biggest reason for skin discoloration issue. So one prudent treatment that you can do by own is by protecting yourself completely from direct sun exposure. UV rays of the sun are so dangerous that it can cause skin cancer too which is a very severe health condition.
It is important to apply sunscreen every day as it will guard melanin and prevent the skin lightening and darkening problem. Wear sunglasses whenever you go out under the sun as sun rays are as powerful as they can damage the retina. Big hats and full selves clothing are other important apparel which comes under the sun protective objects.
Apart from above mentioned medical treatment for skin discoloration there some effective home treatments also which protects from sunburn and reduces the spots, patches, and uneven skin tone. Whatever the reason of skin discoloration the people affected with these skin health issues need support from family and society otherwise they get disheartened due to emotional cramp.